Short Sleepers: Why Some People Need Less Sleep

photo of a man working late at night on his laptopIn our increasingly hectic and digitally connected world, many people regularly sleep for less than 6 hours per night.

Personally, I prefer to sleep for at least 7 hours, but for various reasons sometimes have to make do with a measly 5 or 6.

Despite it being increasingly common to skip sleep, only a relatively small number of people appear truly able to still be at their best, day after day.

I’m definitely not one of those, as much as I wish I were!

The night owl and early bird

Natural short sleepers are often simultaneously a night owl and an early bird. They may go to bed long after midnight, but still manage to rise and shine in the early hours of the morning.

They can then motor on through the day at full speed without feeling any need to have a nap or load up on caffeine.

This ability to survive well without much sleep sometimes starts as a child and can run in families. And rather than showing any ill-effects, short sleepers are often more outgoing, enthusiastic and ambitious than normal.

However, if you feel tired when awake, fall asleep during the daytime or need to catch up on sleep at the weekends, you might not be a true short sleeper.

According to Dr. Daniel J. Buysse, from the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, only 5 in every 100 people who believe they need less than 6 hours’ sleep are natural short sleepers.

The other 95, as you’ll see later, are probably winging it and could be suffering more consequences than they realize.

The 3 types of short sleepers

There are many reasons why some people get less than the recommended 7 to 8 hours of sleep every night. It could be due to circumstances beyond your control, such as work demands, parenthood or health issues.

It might also be lifestyle choices like spending time with family or friends, or being online late at night instead of sleeping.

However, large sleep surveys and medical studies I’ve seen tend to consider three general types of short sleepers:

1. People who sleep less because of a sleep disorder

Some people regularly sleep less than they’d like to because of a sleep disorder, such as insomnia. They are less likely to be at their best the next day, and perhaps suffer the effects of sleep deprivation.

2. People who think they are short sleepers

Some people will regularly sleep for less than 6 hours due to work, study or social reasons. They might think they are fine, but in the long-term are likely to suffer for it.

They might develop coping mechanisms to stay awake, such as drinking coffee or staying active. But really, they would benefit from more sleep.

image of a coffee cup on a table

3. The true short sleepers

The lucky few who don’t need to sleep more than 6 hours, feel no real ill effects and thrive on their rare ability. The genuine short sleeper.

Many people are capable of managing reasonably well on less sleep for a couple of nights. But the true short sleeper can do so night after night.

Personally, I can handle a night or two of just 4 or 5 hours fairly well. But if the pattern continues for too many nights, my concentration and alertness go downhill rapidly. So I’m definitely not a natural short sleeper.

Why can some people survive so well on less sleep?

A challenge that researchers face is that natural short sleepers don’t think they have a sleep disorder. So they are less likely to seek medical help or take part in research projects.

Although there still isn’t a definitive answer, there are two main theories:

  • Natural short sleepers have a specific gene
  • They are more efficient sleepers

Is it in the genes?

In 2009, researchers at the University of California reported that they’d found a gene variation – hDEC2 – in a mother and daughter, who were both natural short sleepers. They both routinely went to bed after midnight and woke up naturally at 4 in the morning.

In 2014, a large team of researchers also found evidence that this gene mutation is involved in short sleepers.

This time, they looked at 100 twin pairs. The twin with the gene variation typically slept for significantly less time  than the twin without the variation, and also seemed more resistant to the ill-effects of sleep deprivation.

Are they simply more efficient sleepers?

In the September 2016 issue of Brain and Behavior journal, a team from the University of Utah reported that short sleepers may be more efficient sleepers.

They used MRI scans to study the connections between different parts of the brain. Connections that are fundamental to how we see the world – how we think and process all the information that bombards us every day.image representing brain activity

The brain scans allowed them to compare the brain activity of 3 groups of people:

  1. Those who slept normally
  2. Those who reported their lack of sleep had an impact on daytime alertness and well-being
  3. Those who stated that it didn’t have an impact

Short sleepers who reported no real effects from a lack of sleep had enhanced connectivity between 2 areas of the brain:

  • The hippocampus – a region of the brain associated with memory
  • The sensory cortices – which process sensory input from your eyes, ears etc

One of the study authors, Dr. Jeffery Anderson said:

That’s tantalizing because it suggests that maybe one of the things the short sleepers are doing in the scanner is performing memory consolidation more efficiently than non-short sleepers.

The team suggested that the brains of short sleepers might be more efficient at undertaking the various tasks we associate with sleep.

Are short sleepers really still alert?

The Utah University team also made some interesting observations about whether short sleepers are actually always as alert as they might believe.

The scans were conducted while people were asked to stay awake. The researchers found that some of the brain activity for the short sleepers was similar to that normally seen during sleep.

So it’s possible that people were drifting off to sleep in the quiet and relaxing atmosphere of the scan.

They also monitored the number of head movements and found that the short sleepers appeared to have more than the non-short sleepers. This suggested to the team that the short sleepers needed more external stimuli to stay awake.

The team considered that some of the short sleepers, who reported no impact on daytime effectiveness, might still be suffering from the effects of sleep deprivation. Perhaps they compensate by seeking increased external stimuli.

These findings could have important safety implications. For example, short sleepers might be more susceptible to falling asleep in the absence of other stimuli, such as when driving long distances at night.

Personal characteristics of short sleepers

Dr. Christopher R. Jones, an associate professor of neurology at the University of Utah, has also studied short sleepers. He notes that they don’t seem to show some typical effects of sleep deprivation, such as irritability and apathy. He says:

These people are typically characterized by their optimism, outgoing nature, and rapid speech.

Dr. Jones also observes that natural short sleepers don’t tend to be overweight, which can be an issue for some people with chronic sleep problems. So not only can natural short sleepers get by with much less sleep, but they even thrive on it.

Can you train yourself to be a short sleeper?

Unfortunately, the simple answer appears to be no. Many people do find ways to compensate for their lack of sleep – coffee, sugar, keeping their brain active or even through exercise. But it’s not the same.

The sleep professionals appear unanimous that you can’t actually train your body to sleep less. At least not without some adverse effects on your performance or health.

The military has also been interested in seeing if they can train their people to survive on less sleep, such as during high intensity operations.

They have found that with practice soldiers can get by for periods with less sleep. But if this goes on for too long, their effectiveness quickly reduces.

There are also some very limited trials which suggest you might be able to bank sleep by sleeping more before a period of reduced sleep. Again though, you can plan your sleep cleverly, but you can’t turn yourself into a true short sleeper.

Famous short sleepers – or maybe not?

image of leonardo da vinci who was a famous short sleeperThroughout history, there have been several famous people who reportedly didn’t sleep much.

Artists, such as Leonardo da Vinci. Scientists, including Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Edison and Albert Einstein. Politicians, like Winston Churchill.

But I wonder how many of these really were natural short sleepers?

For example, Winston Churchill is reported to have not needed much sleep at night. Apparently, he was also fond of having an afternoon nap, so perhaps he wasn’t a natural short sleeper after all, but more of a polyphasic sleeper.

Thomas Edison, who invented the light bulb, also thought sleep was a total waste of time and something we could do without entirely. In 1914 Edison said:

There is really no reason why men should go to bed at all.

Equally, historical reports suggest he had a cot in his laboratories and would take the occasional nap.

How can I tell if I’m a genuine short sleeper?

I haven’t seen any formal self-testing processes for natural short sleepers. However, a couple of experts have suggested one way of testing yourself is:

  • Take a long vacation of at least two weeks, and preferably somewhere you’re not going to suffer from jet lag.
  • You might sleep for longer on the first couple of nights to catch up on lost sleep.
  • After that, go to bed at your normal time, or preferably when you’re tired, and don’t set your alarm clock.
  • See how long you sleep over a period of a few days, which should suggest how much routine sleep you need.

Hopefully, this test won’t stop you enjoying your vacation. You might also have little choice but to go back to your same short sleep routine at the end. But at least you’ll have a better feel for how much sleep you personally need to function at your best.

Conclusion

There are very few people who can truly function well on less sleep every night. It seems that most short sleepers probably struggle with a degree of sleep deprivation and would benefit from a couple of extra hours every night.

It might be that natural short sleepers have specific genes which give them this capability. Equally, perhaps their brains are more efficient at undertaking the housekeeping roles associated with sleep, such as memory consolidation.

Your views

Do you sleep for less than 6 hours per night on average? Do you find you cope well during the day, or do you struggle with the effects of sleep deprivation?

12 CommentsLeave a comment

  • Hello Mr Green,

    Thank you for posting such a wonderfully informative article! I have been wondering for a number of years now, why I get so little sleep throughout the night and manage to feel so alert and ambitious during the day. I rarely sleep longer than 4 hours a night and have never felt any ill affects. I never set an alarm in the morning, never sleep in on weekends or holidays, if I do have a nap (which is rare) I often wake up feeling groggy and incredibly draggy. I also never need caffeine throughout the day to make myself feel awake and alert. I do have a sleep tracker that indicates that the time that I do sleep is often not completely restful, lots of tossing and turning – is this the sign of a short sleeper? Most articles I have read say that short sleeper quality is usually good. I have always wondered if I have suffered from chronic insomnia for years – but without the signs and symptoms of sleep deprivation.

    • Hi Julia
      Thanks for your comment and compliment! To be honest, if you feel fine and have done for years, then I would probably trust that more than a sleep tracker. They are known to have issues, and not be 100% reliable. At the end of the day, how you feel during the day is a much more important measure of how you’re sleeping.
      Regards
      Ethan

  • Hi I am 41 years old female and since I was born never slept more than 4-6 hours on a daily basis.
    When I worked full time, it allowed me to get housework done so I could go out at night with friends and not worry about housework. When I became a mother I found I could easily sleep similar times so I could get my full quota but on a split sleep shift pattern and the rest of the time managed housework etc.
    Once my children were older, I found it great for doing project work I done with them getting housework done, banking, reading books, catching up on knitting etc.
    My husband and 2 older children seem to require 9+ hours daily myself and my younger son need less than 7. My youngest son sleeps about 6 and half hours daily, while depending on my needs I sleep between 4 and 6. I do not feel tired throughout the day, and never felt I had a sleep problem. It was only after talking with a friend who said she thinks I might have short sleeper syndrome should look it up. I know I get enough sleep normally, but on the nights I have been interupted and get less than 4 I feel tired and sluggish, or if I am awoken a few times during my sleep I feel more tired, but normal nights not at all. I have always been a cheerful, optimistic and quite talkative person naturally who just needs less sleep. I find it quite amusing that there is a syndrome for my sleeping cycle, which has never caused me problems.
    As a teenager I never slept more than 6 hours a night and I used to be really confused by people who said they had stayed up all night studying and were so tired the next day, I put in the same study time I was not tired, I always thought these people struggled with stress more than me. Actually throughout life I generally thought people struggled with stress more than myself and thought it was my upbeat personality and that is why I did not suffer tiredness and felt fine after 4-6 hours sleep where as they seemed to struggle. So after 41 years I now know, and my father can now know also as he has the same sleep needs as myself between 4 and 6 hours per night.

    • Hi tracy
      Thanks for your comment and for sharing your story. It’s great to hear from a genuine short sleeper, by the sounds of it. Perhaps your upbeat personality did also play a role in your resistance to stress. But an ability to cope with less sleep must have been very helpful at times when most people struggle, such as when studying hard or raising young children.
      It will be interesting to see if you remain that way for years to come, and what you choose to do with all that extra free time!
      Regards
      Ethan

      • In my free time, I knit, make candles, make soaps, get housework done, read books of interest to me and mostly read books that I need to keep up with news and information on autism as my youngest son is also autistic.
        I also use my time doing courses online, I have covered electrical courses, counselling courses, virology, psychology, photography, and computing courses. I always find something to do. My family used to make jokes about me being like the energizer bunny.
        I have recently taken up wood work an have been making candle holders and now about to start a new adventure in building lamps, which I am currently looking for courses to assist in that. Mostly I am looking at solar ones so I am doing research into that as well. I think when you do get enough sleep daily you have the time and energy to do a lot, I genuinely feel sorry for those who do not get enough sleep, wether short or long sleep required it must be horrid. Last night I slept for 4 and half hours, already I have got tonights dinner on washing done a drying waiting to be hung out, found new designs for a lamp base, banking done 4 meals I am making today prepared, now I need to get my children up for school, my youngest is home taught so I planned out todays work and outing. I hope I remain a cheerful person, the idea of living in misery does not appeal to me.

        Hope you get enough sleep.

        Tracy

        • Hello again
          That’s fantastic! I must admit I’m a tiny bit jealous that you have so much time to do all those amazing things! Good luck in your latest lamp building adventure, and thanks again for sharing.
          Regards
          Ethan

  • Love the article, now I’ve finally found out that I may be quite unique and just not normal. I have never slept more than 4 hours a night my whole life, but it doesn’t affect me in any way. I never go to bed till well after midnight, every night, and am awake by 4 or 5, I suffer no ill effects and never feel tired. I never nap, can’t sleep on a bus, train, or plane or in daylight. My mother was the same so I think I maybe have the short sleep gene. I am wide awake till the early hours, and bright as a button first thing in a morning.

    • Hi Christine
      Thanks for your comment. It’s great to hear from someone who may be a genuine short sleeper! Can I ask, do you find that you make use of all that extra time in your days, or do you relax when others might be sleeping to get more rest?
      Regards
      Ethan

  • Dear Mr. Green,
    I am a 51 year old female. How wonderful to come across this article. Every since I was a small child I have suffered not from a sleep disorder, but from the misunderstanding and frustrations of my parents and partners in life.
    I have carried every diagnosis imaginable and have been ” treated”
    with every medication that exsists. ” We’ve got to get you some sleep, you can’t go on like this”, was what everyone said.
    I had always insisted over the years that I was fine. I have never been extreme enough to think I need no sleep, but 3-4 hours a night is perfect.
    I am cheerful, have many interests, never feel sleepy or “foggy”, I have energy, motivation, and the clarity
    of thought to live a wonderful productive life, full of joy, now despite the efforts of those
    who felt I must sleep more. I do not suffer!
    I think it is best that I live alone as my habits can be disturbing to others. My two brothers seem to have similar issues but are not
    at peace with it as I have learned to be!
    Thank you for this article! The world of sleep has always fascinated me.

    • Hi Teri
      Thanks for your comment, and I’m glad you enjoyed the article. It’s great to hear from someone who has lived on short sleep and can attest to the fact that it’s possible for some to be happy and productive on it.
      Regards
      Ethan

  • To whom it may concern
    My name is Robert Anthony Gomes at this date I am 84 years old, birth date is March 10 1932, I feel I’ve had a sleeping problem, longer than I can remember, but the last roughly 20 years, but I’m more conscious of it in the last 10 years, when I fall asleep it is a minimum of an hour or so, the long as I sleep is 3 hours, I have no problems with my helped, my Dr. I am a veteran and the government pays for everything, I take a thyroid, and a cholesterol, every day and have been taking it for years, I am very active, when I’m awake, I’m always looking for something to do, someplace to go, things I find interesting I really get into it, I have a short I should say very short memory, but some things I can remember from day one when I was a little boy, I have figured out, (my thoughts) what I configure it is, if it’s not important high don’t remember it, and the SP and can be a short as an hour or two I don’t keep track of it, I’m in perfect health, physically and mentally, after reading your article, it makes no sense, but I enjoyed reading it, I never went to high school, worked most of my life, retired it 52, I have no problem meeting people talking about any subject, which I know a lot of some things, and nothing about others, like I said if it is not important to me when cannot remember it from yesterday, but things that are important for me 70 years ago I can remember in actual detail, I just thought I would drop you a line, if you would like to chat, all would like to know more about me drop me a line, otherwise you have a good day and a better tomorrow, I must say I have a fantastic sense of humor, I talk to thousands of people all over the world, and most of them will remember me, for a long time to come, I’ve had a full life, you would not believe what I have done, a long ways six wives and a lot of traveling, I’m sure I’m getting ready to die, and it will happen eventually, I don’t treasure the idea, but they are hundreds of people from all walks of life, if my name is mentioned to them, they will have something to say, something’s good something’s not so good, so my computer and my basically living alone, I am enjoying what that is left, but I’m always looking for a new adventure and I will try anything at least wants, anything you can imagine I am willing to try or probably have tried, I’m available 24/7 drop me a line.

    • Hi Robert
      Thanks for your comment and for sharing your fascinating thoughts! Unfortunately I had to delete the phone number – as a rule I don’t keep or publish contact details of readers.
      Your story was great to read though, and an inspirational one. I hope other readers take a look at it and can also appreciate the life, vitality and energy that pervades it.
      By the way, if you do find yourself spending a lot of time at home, enjoy using a computer and interacting with other people, here’s a challenge for you – try a virtual reality headset! You can use them not just to play games, but also to explore parts of the world or space even, and also to meet with other people from all around the world in a virtual space and chat to them. I sometimes chat to a friend who is thousands of miles away using one. It’s not the same as a face to face to face chat of course, but it’s a lot of fun and maybe an interesting challenge for you!
      I wish you many more adventures!
      Regards
      Ethan

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