Sleep Hygiene: Healthy Habits For Better Sleep

photo of a sunset

What is sleep hygiene?

Sleep hygiene is what sleep experts and doctors use as an umbrella term for lots of different habits that are recommended to help people sleep better.

So although having an evening shower to wash away the day’s sweat and cool your body might be helpful, sleep hygiene isn’t really about cleanliness.

Will sleep hygiene help me sleep better?

Sleep hygiene can be effective, but you might need to put consistent effort into changing your sleep habits to reap the rewards.

I like to describe sleep hygiene as being like a jigsaw puzzle, with many different pieces of advice to consider. The more of them you put together, the more likely it is that you’ll see the complete picture of a good night’s sleep.

Some techniques can take time to really make a difference. The key is to stick with them and be patient.

let’s take a look at the different habits and advice for better sleep that you might like to try.

sleep hygiene infographic

1. Get up at the same time every day

photo of an alarm clock and cup of coffee

For me personally, this has been one of the keys to improving my sleep overall. Your internal body clock is driven by consistency so it can be helpful to work with it.

I find I sleep better in general if I continue to get up reasonably early on weekends too. However, I can understand that social activities and the need to catch up on some sleep might not make the idea of getting up at 7 a.m. on a Sunday very appealing.

If you can resist the urge to spend all morning in bed though, getting up at (more or less) the same time every day can also help get your nighttime routine in place.

Find out how to improve your sleep schedule >>

2. Decide that sleep is an essential part of your day

All too often we sacrifice precious sleep time for other things. If you struggle with insomnia, it’s useful to change how you think about sleep.

Ideally, it should be a non-negotiable time of the day, with just as much importance as eating or working. Obviously, there are situations when you can’t just shut down and tell anyone in your house that you’re unavailable to help because it’s bedtime.

However, once you start to see sleep as important, it might make some of the micro-decisions easier, such as ‘shall I watch another episode or go to bed?’

3. Don’t stay in bed if you can’t sleep

There’s nothing worse than lying in bed clock watching, endlessly changing position and steadily getting more stressed about how you’ll feel the next day. That’s why for some people it’s a good idea to only go to bed when you feel tired.

It can take up to 30 minutes to fall asleep. So if you find yourself awake after that time, it might be better to get up for a while, then try to sleep again a bit later. During that time, you could repeat part of the bedtime routine coming up next.

4. Have a relaxing bedtime routine

Like many people, you might find your insomnia is directly caused by your overactive mind. Perhaps you find yourself in mental fifth gear right up until bedtime. And when you switch the light off, your brain somehow switches on with a flood of thoughts.

Taking some time before bed to regularly do something calming can help you unwind. This is another key point so there’s an extended article about it:

Discover ideas for a calming bedtime routine >>

5. Calm your mind with relaxation techniques

photo of a woman doing a yoga meditation in her bedroom

Before you go to bed it can help to do some relaxation techniques. You can even do them whilst lying in bed to help you relax and fall asleep. There are several exercises you might like to try:

  • Deep breathing exercises
  • Gentle yoga
  • Progressive muscle relaxation
  • Guided meditation and visualization recordings
  • Mindfulness techniques

If you’re the kind of person who finds you can’t switch your brain off at night, these techniques can be very effective – they distract your mind and shift your focus.

See some simple relaxation techniques >>

6. Make your bedroom a sanctuary for sleep

Your bedroom, bed, and bedding can have a profound effect on the way you sleep. Take a look at the following ideas and see how many you currently do:

  • Keep the bedroom tidy, clean and free from clutter.
  • Use a large enough and comfortable bed and mattress.
  • Make sure there’s some air circulation.
  • Use opaque curtains or blackout blinds to prevent light from coming in. If that’s not possible, try using a sleep mask.
  • Don’t let your bedroom get too hot or cold. The ideal sleeping temperature is between 60 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit. That’s 17 to 21 degrees Celsius.

7. Only use the bedroom for sleep and intimacy

It can help if your brain associates the bedroom with just two things: sleep and intimacy with a partner. The only exception should be if you find it relaxing to read a book in bed.

8. Don’t use visual electronic devices in bed

It’s often advised to avoid using electronic equipment in bed, for several reasons:

  • The light from some screens is strong enough to interfere with your internal body clock.
  • Working, playing games or surfing the internet can stimulate your brain and stop you from relaxing.
  • They can be addictive, and trying to beat the next level or spending time on social media can ruin a carefully planned sleep routine.

If you disagree, and find it relaxing to use your smartphone or tablet in bed, then try to limit it to activities that are not too stimulating. You can also dim the screen, use the blue light filter or night mode in the main settings.

9. Choose the right mattress

a mattress topper on a bed

Your mattress is probably the single most important part of your bed. It’s essential you have a comfortable and supportive mattress. Here are some key points to bear in mind:

  • Your mattress should be big enough for you and a partner to sleep on.
  • Mattresses tend to need replacing every 8 years at least.
  • When lying on your back, you should be able to slide your hand between the mattress and your back. Not too easily and not with too much force.
  • Beds with slats are best as they allow air to circulate under your mattress.

If it’s too expensive to replace your mattress, a great alternative is a mattress topper. It can rejuvenate an aging mattress and give you options such as memory foam, heating or cooling.

Find out about the different types of mattress toppers >>

10. Choose high-quality bedding and pillows

Choose the best quality bedding you can afford, clean it regularly and use hypoallergenic fabric if you have allergies.

As well as feeling more comfortable, some fabrics are better at regulating your body temperature.

  1. Cotton – most durable, soft and breathable. A higher thread count (350 or more) means it will be softer. Choose Egyptian, MicroCotton or Pima cotton if possible.
  2. Silk – ideal for hot summer nights and those with allergies.
  3. Satin – feels nice, but not so breathable.
  4. Polyester – lower price and not as comfortable, but lasts a long time.

11. Make sure your bedroom is quiet

photo of a woman sleeping

External noise and snoring are very common causes of sleeplessness. Fortunately, there are ways to deal with noise:

  • If a neighbor or someone in your house is creating the noise, speak to them about it honestly and calmly. Don’t suffer in silence.
  • If you can’t stop the noise at the source, try using earplugs, a white noise machine or a fan.
  • Put on a set of headphones and listen to some relaxing music.

Remember, a bedroom should be a little like a cave: cool, dark and quiet.

See my top tips for coping with noise in bed >>

12. Avoid caffeine and energy drinks

Some people can drink coffee after dinner and sleep fine. But if you struggle with insomnia, the chances are you’re not one of those people.

If you’re sensitive to stimulants, you might want to avoid these drinks in the afternoon, as caffeine can stay in your body for a long time:

  • Coffee
  • Decaffeinated coffee, as it still contains trace amounts of caffeine
  • Black tea
  • Green tea, as it does contain caffeine
  • Coca-Cola, Pepsi, and other colas
  • Energy and sports drinks such as Red Bull
  • Sugary drinks

If you like to have a hot drink at night, either warm milk or herbal tea could form a part of your bedtime routine. You can find many sleep teas in stores, supermarkets and online nowadays.

13. Cut out the nightcap

Some insomniacs find that alcohol helps them fall asleep faster. And researchers have also shown that to be true.

But they’ve also found that alcohol can affect the quality of different sleep stages in ways you might not notice, which results in you feeling less refreshed the next day.

So if you do drink alcohol in the evening, try to drink only a small amount.

14. Stay hydrated

photo of a jug pouring water into a glass

Researchers have found that drinking enough water during the day is associated with better sleep.

There are differing opinions about how much water is sufficient and it depends on factors such as your age, size, and activeness.

But on average, a man should aim to drink around 3 liters of water a day and a woman 2.2 liters.

15. Food to avoid

Your diet can have a significant impact on your sleep. The unsurprising rule of thumb is that the healthier your diet, the healthier your sleep.

Here are some important food points to bear in mind:

  • Eat your biggest meal of the day for lunch. If you can’t, eat dinner as early as possible. The important thing is not to eat a heavy meal in the four to six hours before bed.
  • Avoid sugary food before bed, especially chocolate as it contains caffeine. Dark chocolate contains the most caffeine.
  • Avoid spicy, fatty or fried food before bed.
  • Avoid food with lots of processed carbohydrates at night. If you eat pasta, for example, eat wholewheat pasta.

16. Food you can eat before bed

banana prepared as a bedtime snack

There’s no scientific evidence that any particular food will actively help you fall asleep. However, some food is better than others to snack on before bed. Here are some ideas:

  • Cottage cheese
  • Peanut butter on toast (preferably on brown bread)
  • Bowl of high fiber, low sugar cereal
  • Banana
  • Handful of nuts
  • Yogurt

Food containing the amino acid tryptophan may also be worth considering. Tryptophan is converted by the body into the hormone serotonin. Serotonin leads to melatonin, which helps keep your internal body clock in order.

Tryptophan is contained in most food that contains protein, but is found in especially high concentrations in:

  • eggs
  • spirulina
  • cheese
  • pumpkin seeds
  • turkey
  • tuna
  • cod

17. Regular exercise

two people doing exercise

Tiring both your brain and your body out during the day can be an effective way of getting to sleep at night.

A poll by the National Sleep Foundation found that 83% of adults who did vigorous exercise during the day had fairly or very good sleep. In comparison, just 56% who didn’t do any exercise slept well.

Not only does exercise naturally tire you out, but it also helps combat stress, anxiety and depression. So by helping you relax and deal with mental turmoil, it’s helping you unwind and sleep better.

This is another of the factors which makes the biggest difference for me personally. I am 100% sure that I sleep better on days I do exercise, especially compared to a lazy Sunday spent watching movies and being inactive.

18. Get some sun

Even if you can’t exercise, it’s a good idea to get out of the house for a walk or just sit in the daylight. Sunlight helps keep your body clock ticking over nicely, and is good for mental well-being.

19. Quit smoking

Nicotine is a stimulant and like caffeine, can result in sleeplessness. At the very least try not to smoke in the hour or two before bedtime. If you’re a heavy smoker it’s another good reason to consider quitting.

20. Avoid sleeping pills and check your medication side-effects

sleep aid

Tempting as it might be to have an emergency supply of sleeping pills, it’s better not to get into the habit of relying on them.

Rebound insomnia when coming off sleeping pills can ruin all the hard work you put into developing healthy sleep habits.

It’s also worth checking the information leaflets of any other medication you’re taking, or consulting your doctor. You might be surprised to find they list symptoms such as restlessness, agitation, and insomnia as possible side effects.

Your view

How many of these habits do you do now? Are there any you think would help you, or do you have any other suggestions? Please share your ideas in the comments below.

33 thoughts on “Sleep Hygiene: Healthy Habits For Better Sleep”

  1. I am so grateful to have come across your informative and helpful information and personal experiences. I have always been a night owl, preferring to go to bed from 11pm-12 midnight as I am awake anywhere from 1-7am, an earlier to bed. I would get up at 7am to get ready for work. I am now suffering menopause and was averaging 4 hrs a night sleep. To try to rectify this, I went on HRT but although it helps generally (no flushes through the day now); it hasn’t helped with sufficient sleep at night. A GP put me on zopiclone for one week to try to induce a regulated sleep pattern, then 3 days off; 3 days on, but this triggered sleeping when on the tablet but no sleep or virtually no sleep on the nights not taking zopiclone. I had an unpleasant experience at work and experienced nights of no sleep at all. This caused anxiety and because upset from no sleep and work situation, started a series of trying different medications (all didn’t help: sertraline for 2 weeks; then mitazapan which I stayed awake on and was horrific so stopped after just 2 nights). So I was put back on zopiclone for 2 weeks (was signed off sick with stress from work for 9 weeks). They made me redundant 2 days before Christmas 2020. Now when try to come off zooiclone, I get rebound insomnia. So now amitriptyline and on x3 10mg and 1/4 tablet of zopiclone – amitriptyline alone, is not stopping fight or flight hypnotic jerks (prevents me sleeping as happens all night). I want to be able to sleep naturally but since taking zopiclone, my body/brain doesn’t seem to know how… have you had any experience or have any advice for this?

    1. Hi Karen
      Thanks for your comment and for sharing your experience. To answer your question first, no I haven’t had personal experience of these sleeping pills. I have always stuck with herbal and over the counter sleep aids instead of prescription ones. But I do know that people do sometimes have the kind of sleep problems you describe when they stop taking a sleep aid that was working well for them. I would speak to your doctor about your desire to come off the sleep aids and see if they can work with you to taper them off. They might also be able to refer you to some therapy for insomnia, if it’s available where you are. Look up CBT-I and you’ll see what I mean. But you might also find some of the advice you get is similar to what you can find online easily. The difference is it would be tailored specifically to you and your situation rather than being generic advice. But in the meantime, I would suggest trying to put as much of the sleep hygiene tips into practice that you can if any seem strikingly different from what you usually do. I think for some people, just one or two adjustments can make a difference. Others might need a broader set of changes to see improvements. But my advice to people I meet in real life is always to see it as a challenge – really get stuck into trying out different techniques and lifestyle changes if appropriate in the hope that something works for you.

  2. Hi Ethan,
    Your website has been very helpful in my quest for a full night’s sleep.
    I recently purchased a “FitBit ” watch to look at sleep patterns. It shows that although getting enough total sleep I am getting 0% or less of deep sleep. Is there a way or sleep ad to improve this particular segment?

    Charles Stark

    1. Hi Charles

      Thanks for your comment, and it’s good to know the website was useful for you. It sounds like something is wrong if it shows 0% deep sleep. Are the REM and light sleep quantities showing up?


    2. Philip Harmsworth

      Since my wife passed away in December I’ve not been able to sleep till at least 3am or later. I’ve tried all sorts of over the counter products. I always have some kind of side effects. I would give anything to go to bed and sleep.

  3. Ethan,

    I just stumbled upon your site to read your review of Spoonk. I have had trouble sleeping for about 8 months, as my best friend was very sick and it created an unending anxious state for me. I am now falling asleep, but wake with anxiety. Do you have any suggestions for that? I follow most of your sleep hygiene suggestions.

    Thank you,


    1. Hi Sue
      Thanks for your comment, and sorry to hear you’ve had a rough time with your friend being ill. I think there are two points here: how do you stop yourself waking up with anxiety, and what do you do when or if it happens. In my mind, the second is perhaps easier to tackle, as there might be many reasons you wake up, and the problem is then that your anxiety floods back (in my experience at least). I find that two things really help: first, remind yourself that it’s ok to wake up, not stress about being awake, try to relax and just enjoy the comfort of your bed and know that you will fall asleep again. Second, simple breathing exercises can really help to take your mind out of your head and focus on simple physical movements instead. Perhaps try those and see if it helps. As for the anxiety itself, I personally find if I do 5-20 mins of meditation or yoga before bed, I tend to wake up less frequently.

  4. Hi Ethan,

    Nice website my sleep doctor recommended. I’m being treated for insomnia.

    I have night time eating syndrome – where I eat the majority of my calories in the evening, need to sleep on a fuller stomach, and wake up during the night hungry and eat (I’m aware) in order to fall back asleep. I also have depression and anxiety if that is related.

    Do you have any information to help me better understand this?


    1. Hi there
      Thanks for your comment – it’s good to know the site comes recommended! Unfortunately though I can’t return the helpful words, as I don’t know enough about your particular situation to feel confident in providing any advice. What I can say though is that depression and anxiety have more and more self-help guidance available to the public, and I’ve had great success personally. Funnily enough, recently by exploring food that benefits my microbiome, which is a growing area of scientific exploration where anxiety and depression are concerned. You should look it up if you haven’t already.

  5. I have a problem where I’ll wake up just about every two hours with a random song, usually just a small part of the song playing endlessly in my head. It’s usually a song I listened to that day or recently. Alternately I’ll have the same problem of waking up every two hours because I’ll be having a persistent dream that I’m trying to solve a problem or puzzle that only exists in the dream and is complete nonsense when I wake up. This will continue all night.
    The most annoying issue I have is having to visit the bathroom at least three or four times a night. I’ve tried everything, eating things that are supposed to help bladder control, not drinking caffeine, not drinking sugary drinks, not drinking anything after 7pm, holding it longer and longer until I almost wet my pants. Nothing I’ve tried helps. Basically, I don’t sleep well, ever, and when I manage to get a pretty good amount of sleep is with an over the counter sedative sleeping pill. I’ve heard taking one every night is bad in the long term but there is no other way for me. I’ve even tried the sleep hygiene stuff, which for sure can help me fall asleep faster, but does not at all help me stay asleep.

    1. Hi Charissa
      Thanks for your comment. I can understand your frustration from what you described. I have to say I’m not a big believer in making yourself hold it in if you need to go – I think it’s adding unnecessary suffering! But have you been to the doctor to get a checkup for your general health? It might be worth doing.
      I also wonder if the vivid dreams could be associated with the sleep aids you take. Does it happen when you don’t take them? Do you notice they happen more or less when you do certain things?

  6. Rick Mickelson

    My doc suggested this website and I’m finding tons of good information.

    My issue: sleep from ten p.m. to 3 or 4 am. Awake with very active mind, next hour or so is spent trying to calm or focus mind. If unsuccessful in 15 minutes, I change location and read. Usually sleep again until 7 to 8 a.m. Rarely feel fully rested.

    I find I already do many of the habits. I Recently ditched the electronic device in bed. Currently trying to habitualize a better pre sleep routine, which includes meditation, and 3 yoga poses, before getting into bed, then some book reading. I usually go to sleep quickly, but it is the middle night wake up I don’t like. My ideal would be sleeping at 10 p.m., wake at 7 a.m. Thanks so much.

    1. Hi Rick
      Thanks for your comment. It’s great to hear you found the website useful. When you say your ideal would be 10 till 7, is that because you know you don’t function well on less than 9 hours sleep, or is there another reason you have 9 hours as your goal? The reason I ask is that the recommended amount of sleep for most adults is 7-9 hours, but really, 9 is at the upper end. Many will find less than 9 is perfectly adequate. So perhaps your setting yourself up to fail if 9 isn’t what your body really needs?
      As for waking in the night, I wrote an article about that specific issue a while ago that you might find interesting. It happens to me a lot as well, and the advice in that article helped me a lot. You can find it here.

  7. Dear Sir,
    Thank you for information. I was facing difficulty in falling sleep but now a days when I sleep dream start continuously. I don’t like to take any medicine. Please help

    1. Hi DG
      Thanks for your comment. I don’t think there’s anything wrong with remembering your dreams regularly. Is that what you’re worrying about?

  8. I have very poor sleeping habits.
    Once I tried to keep a diary. I decided to do it before bed, when I had time. I also find it nice to drink some tea while writing. Anyways journaling + tea became kind of “bedtime ritual” as a side effect. I unload all thoughts on the paper, which is calming on its own and shortly after it go to bed. Main idea was keeping a diary, but I also fell asleep super easy after that ( the easiest in my life actually). Usually I am anxious person and it takes me time to fall asleep. So rituals and some calming work like a charm for me.

    1. Hi Sam
      Thanks for your comment and for sharing this. Keeping a diary before going to bed is such a simple idea, yet one we rarely put into practice. It’s a shame because it’s actually very effective, especially if you don’t sleep well because of stress or anxiety etc. It’s also great to create a bedtime ritual, with a relaxing cup of tea being another classic, and effective technique.

    1. Hi Cindy
      Thanks for this suggestion – yes, I have heard about them. It seems they could be a good idea for people who use electronic devices like smartphones, tablets and laptops at night. Here’s an interesting article in the New York Times blog about the idea.

    1. Hi Mounir
      Thanks for your comment. I generally try to cover all different pieces of advice about insomnia, even those that don’t have indisputable scientific backing. I’ve seen a number of sources suggesting garlic can act as a stimulant, so decided to include it on the list. Though to be honest, I doubt it’s one of the more important ideas!

  9. Hi – I have been struggling with poor sleep for 3 years and off and on poor sleep since my 20’s. I have adopted all of the sleep hygiene as part of my life without much success. My sleep is inconsistent. 2 out of 7 days a week I would sleep without waking. The other 5 days I would get to sleep easily but wake at varying times 12/1/3:30 and not get back to sleep. As an aside – for other reasons – I started an elimination diet (FODMAP). I am 7 weeks in and after the inevitable detox I have had 2 (most recent) amazing weeks of no waking and good sleep. Today I introduced garlic back into my diet. One roasted clove at dinner and now I am writing this at 4:00am after being awake since 1am. I didn’t expect this…so I googled garlic and sleep and got your article. In all my sleep hygiene research I had not made the connection with garlic. I knew about spicy foods but not garlic. I have to do 2 more days of garlic to test for gastro intestinal issues but I will be having it at breakfast or lunch. After 2 glorious weeks of sleep lying in bed right now sucks!!! Everyone is different but for me this could explain the inconsistency of my sleeping 2 out of 7 nights…it’s in everything!!! It’s just one of those things you don’t think would affect sleep.

    1. Hi there
      Thanks for your comment. How interesting that you’ve been able to make a possible connection with the garlic affecting your sleep! I’d really appreciate it if you could find a minute to come back in a few days and say if you have any more thoughts about the impact of the garlic. If it does turn out to be a culprit for your poor sleep, how wonderful it would be to be able to eliminate the garlic and with it, the insomnia.

  10. I read Ebooks in bed because it’s less disruptive to others. The new feature on tablets “blue shade” or some variant of “night or bed mode” filters out the blue light waves which science has found to be the most problem inducing environmental factor when it comes to trouble sleeping, and it spills from nearly every light up anything except digital clocks with red display. It helps

    1. Hi Rae
      Thanks for your comment. That’s a very good suggestion for people who like to use digital readers. If you have that feature on your device it’s definitely worth using it.

  11. Any thoughts on ZZZ Quil? It helps for sure, but I believe I read somewhere that it could lead to Alzhiemers. Have you heard this?

    1. Hi Linda
      I’ve read some articles about the link, yes. But it was due to one study in 2015 suggesting that long-term use of some drugs could increase the risk. As I always say, it’s better to use any sleep aid just for a short period of time. I think if you use any sleep aid for years, it’s possibly going to have negative consequences.

  12. I tried all of these except that I don’t come out of bed when I can’t sleep but nothing works for me. At times I don’t go to sleep for 3-4 days in a row and when I sleep it’s not more then 2-3 hours a night.

    1. Hi Sandy
      Thanks for your comment. I can understand your frustration if you go so many days in a row without sleeping. When it’s that bad, it’s probably good to speak to your doctor to get some advice, especially if it’s affecting your day to day life. I’d also have a go at staying out of bed until you feel sleepy. You might be able to stave off the feeling of frustration that can come from lying awake for hours on end.

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